Radioactive Spoils Pile on North Ave. has been removed!

By Lou Ricciuti and Frank Parlato

Niagara Falls – The spoils pile at 915 North Ave. – which had signs around it warning: “Caution Radioactive Materials Area” –was removed earlier this month, along with the chain link fence surrounding it.

The pile had sat on an abandoned lot for more than a year– near a densely populated part of the city. The Dyster administration made no official announcement of its removal or where it went.

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A radioactive spoils pile sat abandoned for more than a year on North Ave.

 

New York State law (6 NYCRR part 380) bars landfills in New York State from accepting radioactive waste and it is believed to have been delivered to the US Ecology EQ Wayne Disposal landfill in Belleville, Michigan.

A graded vacant lot with topsoil and weeds is how the site appears now.

Whether residue of radioactive materials is still onsite has yet to be determined.

 

Radioactive

Sings were placed around the pile warning that the pile contained radioactive material

The public first voiced concerns about the potential danger of the spoils pile after The Reporter’s story of June 23 alerted the community to its existence.

The Reporter noted the pile, of approximately100 tons of soil and crushed rock, had yellow hazard signs around it, inside a fence, that warned that it was radioactive.

We reported the gate to the fence was bowled over and the plastic sheet covering it was tattered permitting particles of potentially hazardous material to become airborne.

A year or more of rain, snow, wind and official neglect may have scattered toxic substances, infiltrating the air and perhaps drinking water as well.

After the Reporter broke the story, the city fixed the fence, and plastic covering.

The story prompted concerns however that sitting above ground, a few hundred yards from a densely populated neighborhood, was radioactive material too dangerous to bury in landfills anywhere in the state.

The spoils pile, we learned, came from excavations from the new train station located a few hundred feet away.

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Without fanfare, the spoils pile was removed

After other media reported on our story, Niagara Falls Senior Planner, Thomas J. DeSantis told reporters the spoils pile was harmless.

Mayor Paul Dyster told The Reporter the pile presented no serious public safety threat and that he personally held the materials in his hand.

The Dyster Administration did not release an Environmental Impact Study or laboratory analysis to corroborate their claims. An analysis would have tested for uranium, radium, thorium, and plutonium.

DeSantis told the media that the “exact isotope” was irrelevant emphasizing that the soil “has a low level of radiation.”

Test reports did show the presence of radium, he admitted.

 

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The radioactive spoils pile is just on the other side of the railroad tracks a few hundred feet from the new train station.

The isotope referred to is believed to be radium 226, which, scientists have learned, mimics calcium. If ingested, even in microscopic quantities, the body sends radium 226 to teeth and bones where it can cause leukemia and bone cancer. Radium 226 has a half-life of 1600 years.

“It’s not contaminating anything, the levels are so low that they don’t cause a health threat,” DeSantis repeatedly assured the public. “It’s safe to any-body walking by. It was never abandoned and it was never a threat. We dig it up and then we segregate it”

Modern science however does not agree.

The U.S.E.P.A. warns that “all exposures to ionizing radiation carry a risk for inducing an associated disease.”

The Beir -VII report by the National Academy of Sciences in 2005 states there “is no safe dose of radiation no matter how small.”

DeSantis told the Niagara Gazette that the radioactive warning signs that had been posted by the city’s environmental contractor were “unnecessary,” and he took them down weeks before the spoils pile left for Michigan.

When questioned by the Gazette about his expertise on radioactive material and their handling, DeSantis demurred, admitting he actually was not the “appropriate” person to speak to on this matter.

Is there any way of proving Dyster- Desantis’ claims that the radioactive spoils pile posed no threat to human health?

 

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Radium 226, even in small doses can be fatal.

A Geiger counter reading taken by the Reporter at the exposed site, before it was removed, showed the spoils pile exceeded natural background radiation rates by orders of magnitude, or by at least 1000 times what should be considered natural for any area.

By DeSantis calling it low level radioactive waste, it only means, even if he doesn’t understand it, that the risk of cancer is lower, but it still exists.

Radiation weakens and breaks up DNA, damaging cells enough to kill them or causes them to mutate in ways that lead to cancer.

No one, even if they hold it in their hand, feels the health hazards immediately.

And radium is considered very harm-ful since it has long biological half-lives and the radiation has a high relative biological effectiveness, making it more damaging to tissues per amount of energy deposited.

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Niagara Falls Senior Planner Thomas DeSantis says the radioactive pile was harmless.

Radioactive elements have been found in similar sites around Niagara Falls and Niagara County when radioactive waste was buried under roads and parking lots, decades ago.
When tearing up a road in Niagara Falls, where radioactive material is buried or moving a radioactive spoils pile, it creates an inhalation hazard to the surrounding commu-nity which can manifest as cancer 20 years later.

If someone breathes in a particle of uranium, for example, it can lodge in their lung. As each atom decays, the uranium emits alpha particles that pack millions of electron volts—that’s what makes a Geiger counter click—more than enough to damage or break a strand of DNA or RNA.
These alpha particles can only travel about six cell diameters, so a tremendous amount of potentially destructive energy is concentrated in a very small area of the lung.

Cancer is known to start from the aberration in an individual cell.

Uranium, the parent of other radio-active materials that have seeped into the environment, is toxic to cells; it adversely affects DNA; it causes mutations in DNA; causes birth defects and is a neurological hazard.

For decades, the agencies charged with protecting communities ex-posed to radioactive materials insisted that the legacy waste produced in and around Niagara Falls did not pose a significant health risk.

And that is what the spoils pile on North Ave. probably was: legacy radioactive waste, unearthed with the train station excavation, after being buried for decades.

DeSantis, in arguing the relative safety of the spoils pile, drew comparisons to the Lewiston Road reconstruction project several years ago.

Radioactive waste was buried under the road and when it was dug up, DeSantis called it harmless.

“This material (on North) is similar to radioactive materials excavated as a function of (Lewiston Road) Project, which were similarly handled, monitored and disposed of under the direction of the (state Department of Health) and (state Department of Environmental Conservation),” he said.

DeSantis cited a “fact sheet” circulated by the Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) regarding the Lewiston Road radioactive waste which is also called by the catch all term “slag.”

The document states that slag presents “no concern for public health,” but was supported by findings from nearly 40 years ago.

Back in the 1940’s and 1950’s, Niagara Falls was the premier city for experimentation, research, development and production of atomic bomb materials throughout the Manhattan Project and into The Atomic Energy Commission eras.

According to U.S. Department of Energy records, Niagara Falls was the largest production center for uranium metal-from-ore in the nation.

The material from which chemical companies refined radioactive isotopes came from ore – from Africa, the Yukon and the Colorado Plateau, mined from up to 1000 feet below surface.

Ore – with uranium in it – was transported to the Falls and radioactive elements from it were handled, enhanced, manipulated and produced in chemistry labs and metallurgical furnaces which were powered by Niagara’s abundant hydroelectric power.

After the radioactive elements or isotopes, consisting of primarily uranium 235 (U-235 or Fissel material) was extracted for use in bombs and reactors.

Because usable radioactive isotopes refined from the ore were in trace quantities, the refining process necessitated leaving significant amounts of remaining isotopes in the massive tonnages of waste associated with production.

99 percent of the ore remained as waste, including “depleted uranium”, remaining uranium, thorium and radium.

The waste was not returned to Africa, the Yukon or Colorado, but labeled “slag”, declared safe, and buried underground in various locations in Niagara Falls.

At the time, people were led to believe that buried under pavement the radioactivity in the slag would not penetrate the surface.

Scores of roads in Niagara Falls have radioactive material buried underneath them. Scientists have since learned that radioactive materials buried under roadways are not completely insulated or made “safe” by pavement over them.

Due to historic activities typically related to the radium industry, uranium mining, and military programs, there are numerous sites that contain or are contaminated with radioactivity.

Agencies that set safety standards for exposure to radiological materials have ignored new science that shows even small doses of so-called “low-level” radiation can have devastating health consequences.

Electro Metallurgical Company of Niagara Falls, New York, a subsidiary of Union Carbide, was the MED’s largest ore-to-metal uranium production plant. From 1942 to 1953, the plant processed uranium tetrafluoride (green salt) into uranium metal. The plant was also called the Union Carbide and Chemical Electro-Metallurgical Division Works.

Linde Air, Titanium Alloys Manu-facturing, National Lead, Harshaw Chemical, Hooker Chemical, and other plants contributed to the creation of the atom bomb, and were rewarded for their work.

When the war ended Niagara Falls in-dustry continued to win lucrative de-fense contracts and play a role in nuclear esearch for decades to come.

A lot of the waste was buried here. One of those piles came to the surface and now it is gone.

There are many more spoils piles just like it waiting to be unearthed,Desantis-300x170 20160806_123333_resized (2) 20160806_123211_resized  Radioactive

164 Comments

  1. http://www.theecologist.org/campaigning/2977669/after_hiroshima_and_nagasaki_a_third_nuclear_atrocity_the_corruption_of_science.html
    After Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a third nuclear atrocity: the corruption of science

    Prof. Chris Busby
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    Following the atomic bombs exploded over Japan in 1945 a second crime against humanity took place, writes Chris Busby: the deliberate falsification of science to hide the dangers of ionising radiation, perpetrated to quell public opposition to a new age of nuclear bombs and energy. The fraud continues to this day, but finally the truth is winning out.

    The atomic bombs on Japan gave rise to the biggest public health scandal in human history, whose victims number hundreds of millions – in cancer deaths and miscarriages, infant deaths, loss of fertility and genomic instability.

    On the 70th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, articles are appearing everywhere discussing the historical, philosophical, scientific, public health and social meaning of this event (I almost wrote ‘war crime’).

    The bombings can be extrapolated onward in time through the atmospheric testing fallout and Chernobyl, to the more recent contamination in Japan after Fukushima.

    Today, the analysis of the health risks from the Japanese A-Bombs is being cleverly twisted to provide a rationale for the development of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy.

    Hiroshima and Nagasaki are not just some historical tableaux that we can weep crocodile tears over, and discuss as socio-historic phenomena.

    They are here today, present as ghosts, in all the manipulations and devious calculations made by the international radiation risk agencies and nuclear-industry scientists giving results that continue to permit the release into the environment of the same deadly substances that emerged for the first time in 1945.

    Abusing Hiroshima to deny nuclear bomb health damage

    I am currently presenting a case for the British Atomic Test veterans in the Royal Courts of Justice in London. The case pivots on the faulty radiation and health risk model that is based on the Lifespan Study of the Japanese A-Bomb survivors.

    This model, of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), is used by the Ministry of Defense in the courts to deny responsibility for the cancers in the Nuclear Test Veterans and the congenital disease in their children and grandchildren.

    However, the Hiroshima model also predicts that those exposed to radiation and fallout from future nuclear ‘exchanges’ would suffer little downstream genetic damage. Thus the Doctors Strangelove and the generals can argue that a nuclear war is winnable and that the increases in cancer and genetic effects in those exposed to Depleted Uranium (DU) in Iraq somehow don’t exist.

    The bogus analysis of the health outcomes from Hiroshima has left the world with a major public health problem. In an effort to refute the mounting evidence, the ICRP model was relaunched by The Lancet to coincide with the Hiroshima anniversary.

    A whole issue is given over to the presentation of wacko accounts of the health consequences of Hiroshima, Chernobyl and Fukushima through articles (at least partly) written by those who hold the reins of the ICRP chariot. The key issue is accurately described at the start:

    “The linkages between Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Fukushima are thus more than just symbolic, having shaped current health management practices, and the institutions that run them, as well as public responses to these events.”

    However, these current health management practices are wildly in error.

    Nuclear war

    Everyone has seen the photos of Hiroshima. The primitive Uranium-235 bomb ‘Little Boy’ that fell on Hiroshima with an explosive power of 13 kilotons (13,000 tons of TNT, the conventional chemical explosive) flattened the city and killed some 80,000 people of which 45,000 died on the first day.

    Within four months the death toll was about 140,000. Three days after Hiroshima, a 20kT Plutonium bomb ‘Fat Man’ was dropped on Nagasaki (Why? Did the US think perhaps the Hiroshima bomb might have been overlooked?). Both weapons were mostly made of Uranium.

    Note that. Since then, from 1950, a study of the survivors by the US funded Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission ABCC (and later the Radiation Effects Research Foundation) has defined the relationship between radiation dose and cancer.

    In passing, recall that the explosive power was 13 kilotons. Anyone who wants nightmares should buy the standard work:The Effects of Nuclear Weapons, by Samuel Glasstone, the physical chemist. The more recent versions of this book have a nifty little plastic calculator in the back where you may, by rotating the bezel, inform yourself of the radii of blast, radiation dose, building destruction etc. for any size of bomb.

    The US has spent lots of money and time blowing up stuff in the Nevada and Pacific test sites to obtain these data. Modern thermonuclear warheads, of which there are currently some 15,000, pack about 800kT. Just one of these jobs would put paid to most of New York, Tehran or Jerusalem.

    I visualize some poor civil defense chief sitting in a shelter somewhere desperately twisting the scales on this pretty ‘Nuclear Bomb Effects Computer’ (developed by the Lovelace Research Institute in Albuquerque, New Mexico) whilst waiting for the ground to disappear.

    Nuclear war is not longer unthinkable

    The problem we have in the world in 2015 is that the economic system and power relations between countries encourages those taking big decisions to think in terms of geopolitical strategies that include the use of nuclear weapons.

    There are potential resource wars; there are food-production issues following changes in global weather patterns, there are technological developments in what were historically manipulatable countries. Nuclear weapons are now in the hands of nine nations including three which are not party to the non-proliferation treaty (and why should they be?): India, Pakistan and North Korea.

    Negotiations with Iran are currently argued to be “of tremendous importance” in a region where Israel has the nuclear potential to wipe out all the local Arab states at a sitting. The Russians have massive nuclear capability and are being baited on their borders in Ukraine by NATO and those who control NATO.

    This shit-stirring now has moved to the Baltic States. I live in Latvia, and this Spring I saw a new tank with a Latvian flag rolling though the center of Ropazi, a small town 40km west of Riga near where I live. Every day, the sky overhead had big helicopters and transport aircraft, donated to the Latvians by the US. Why?

    The Baltic States and Poland are conscripting armies to defend the motherland against invasion by the Russians. What’s going on? Those who sow the wind reap the whirlwind, my grandmother would say. Let us hope not.

    A systematic cover-up of nuclear dangers

    In all the high level strategic thinking that is associated with this nuclear warmongering, the post attack population death yields from fallout are computed according to the ICRP risk model. But that Hiroshima model is a chimeric construction, built in the Cold War to back up the atmospheric testing.

    The observable effects (increases in infant mortality, the 1980s cancer epidemic) were covered up following a 1959 agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, which left the IAEA, the nuclear physicists, the bomb makers, the deniers of Chernobyl and Fukushima effects, in charge of the research into health.

    And so it remains today with The Lancet article ‘Long-term effects of radiation exposure on health’, co-written by particle physicist Richard Wakeford, ex-head of research of British Nuclear Fuels at Sellafield, nuclear industry representative on the UK CERRIE committee, member of the ICRP, adviser to the Japanese on Fukushima, and so forth.

    The evidence from real studies of the offspring of the test veterans, and the soldiers and civilians exposed to Depleted Uranium, is that a nuclear war will be the end of life on earth as we know it.

    The test veterans have a 10-fold excess risk of children with birth defects, 9-fold in the grandchildren. Although millions will be blasted away, the real outcome will be global sterility, cancer and malformation. All the Mad Max stuff but worse: Hollywood got it right.

    Evidence and errors in the Hiroshima lifespan studies

    If you find that there is a doubling of breast cancer or child leukemia in those living downwind of a nuclear power station, at an ‘estimated dose’ less than external background, the ICRP model tells you that the effect cannot be due to the releases from the power station because the dose is too low.

    The epidemiologist Martin Tondel found in 2004 that there was a significant excess cancer risk in Northern Sweden after Chernobyl. He was told to shut up because what he found was impossible: In other words, the dose was too low.

    The same in Belarus and Ukraine where my colleague Alexey Yablokov has collected together an enormous compilation of peer reviewed evidence of appalling effects. Most recently we see the Hiroshima-based denials in the case of thyroid cancer in Fukushima prefecture (see below).

    The study groups for the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) probe were assembled in 1950. Thus there were five years in which those who were badly affected by the radiation could die. The study was of a “healthy survivor” group, something which the late Dr Alice Stewart demonstrated.

    But that is not the worst accusation. There were roughly 109,000 individuals recruited, including six dose groups from 0 to 200 rad (0-2+ Gy) and two Not in City (NIC) groups, the 4,607 Early Entrants (NIC-EE) and 21,915 Late Entrants (NIC-LE).

    These NIC groups should have been the controls, but they were not. If you look at the reports you find they were abandoned as being ‘too healthy’. The final exposure groups were defined by how far they were from the detonation.

    But all groups were exposed to residual radioactivity from the bombs. The US and ABCC denied (and still denies) this. There were internal exposures to all the groups whatever their external dose had been at the detonation.

    Uranium: a genetic poison that targets DNA

    The origin was the “black rain” which contained Uranium-235, Uranium-238 and particularly Uranium-234, which is the missing exposure, and is probably responsible for most of the cancer effects in all the survivors. We know that the Uranium was there because it was measured by Japanese scientists in 1983.

    A recently declassified US document tabulates the enormous U-234 content of the enriched Uranium used in the bombs, codename: Oralloy. The Uranium nanoparticles in the Hiroshima (and Nagasaki) black rain were available for inhalation by all the exposure groups in the ruins of Hiroshima for years after the bomb.

    All the bombs were made of Uranium, about 1 ton per Megaton yield. For all those tests in Nevada, the Marshall Islands, Kazakhstan, Christmas Island, the results were the same: down came the nanoparticles to be inhaled by anyone nearby and distant.

    Why does this matter? New research has been carried out on Uranium. We find that Uranium targets DNA through chemical affinity. This causes terrible and anomalous genetic damage, out or all proportion to its “dose” as calculated by ICRP. Other fallout components also bind chemically to DNA, e.g. Strontium-90, Barium-140.

    Those exposed: Uranium miners, Gulf Veterans, Test Veterans, DU civilians, Nuclear Uranium workers, Nuclear Site downwinders, all suffer chromosome damage, cancer, leukemia, heart disease, the works. All this is published, as are the results of laboratory and theoretical studies showing mechanisms. But in the Lancet: nothing.

    S L Simon and A Bouville who wrote the article on the health effects of the nuclear testing did not even mention Uranium there, nor in their epic 2010 study of the Marshall Islands exposures. The Nevada site data that they used for their baseline calculations ignored it totally.

    In 2012, I made a presentation for the Marshall Islanders at the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva, attacking the Simon et al analysis. In their Lancet nuclear test article, Simon and Bouville major on Iodine effects. So let’s look at those.

    Scientific evidence from Fukushima: massive excess of thyroid cancers

    In Fukushima Prefecture, surveys have confirmed 103 thyroid cancers in 380,000 18-year olds (25 or so are still being checked out). The Lancet article by Wakeford et al. presents an excess Relative Risk culled from the Hiroshima studies of 0.6 per Sievert (Fig 2 p 473). In the very same issue, the maximum thyroid dose was given as 18mSv with the median dose as 0.67mSv.

    So in the two years of screening, if everyone screened got the maximum thyroid dose of 18mSv we should expect an increase of 0.018 x 0.6 = 0.011, a 1.1% increase in the background rate. This background is about 1 per 100,000 per year or 7.6 in two years in 380,000. So the radiation should increase this to 7.7 cases (i.e. one extra case in 10 years).

    There are 103, that is 95 more cases than expected, an error in the ICRP model of 95/0.14 = 678-fold. That is, there are 678 times more thyroid cancers than the Hiroshima-based ICRP model predicts.

    This calculation is based on what was written in The Lancet – but nobody made the calculation. This on its own should show the authorities (and the public) that the game is up. But instead of doing the simple calculation, another article in The Lancet, written by Geoff Watts, praises the work of those at Fukushima Medical University, who are busy telling everyone that the increases in thyroid cancer cannot be caused by the radiation.

    In other words, once again, the predictions from Hiroshima are believed, rather than the evidence in front of their eyes. It’s a kind of mass hypnosis (or maybe not).

    Finally, someone is trying to get to the truth of the matter

    In case you think this is all mad stuff, there does at last seem to be some measure of concern evolving in this area of internal radiation, though no one in The Lancet articles mentions it. The European Union radiation research organization MELODI has finally moved into action, led by the French radiation protection agency IRSN.

    The matter was raised (by me) at the inaugural MELODI conference in Paris in 2011, but nothing seemed to develop. I said that there are likely to be dose estimation problems associated with internal exposure to nuclides which bind to DNA, and particularly Uranium; that this potentially falsified the Hiroshima risk model.

    A hugely expensive European research project has now been proposed. It is CURE: Concerted Uranium Research Europe. In the report launching this development in March 2015 the authors wrote: a large scale integrated collaborative project will be proposed to improve the characterization of the biological and health effects associated with uranium internal contamination in Europe.

    In the future, it might be envisaged to extend collaborations with other countries outside the European Union, to apply the proposed approach to other internal emitters and other exposure situations of internal contamination, and to open the reflections to other disciplines interested in the effects of internal contaminations by radionuclides.

    In the future, Hiroshima should not be remembered not just for the destruction of its inhabitants, but also for being the flag for the epidemiological cover-up of the biggest public health scandal in human history, whose victims number hundreds of millions – in cancer deaths and miscarriages, infant deaths, loss of fertility and the introduction of genomic instability to all creatures on Earth.

    Let us pray that it will not be allowed to sanction the final nuclear exchange, on the mistaken prediction that such an event will be winnable.

    Chris Busby is an expert on the health effects of ionizing radiation. He qualified in Chemical Physics at the Universities of London and Kent, and worked on the molecular physical chemistry of living cells for the Wellcome Foundation. Professor Busby is the Scientific Secretary of the European Committee on Radiation Risk based in Brussels and has edited many of its publications since its founding in 1998. He has held a number of honorary University positions, including Visiting Professor in the Faculty of Health of the University of Ulster. Busby currently lives in Riga, Latvia. See also: chrisbusbyexposed.org, greenaudit.org and llrc.org.

    This article was originally published by RT, and is reproduced by kind permission of the author.

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